一个纯朴坚韧、极富灵性却遭到生活不公正待遇的孩子身上,所表现出来的强烈的生存意识和生命力量,让整个世界都为之动容。这种值得讴歌的生命意志,在极富古典意味的文字里面,焕发出思想与美感同行的力量,闪耀着生命人格的灼人光焰。

  作者简介:

  曹文轩,1954年1月生于江苏盐城,中国儿童文学作家。

  1974年入北京大学中文系读书,后留校任教。1979年开始发表文学作品,短篇小说《弓》和《哑牛》分别获得1982年《儿童文学》《少年文艺》优秀作品奖。1988年,短篇小说《再见了,我的小星星》获得第一届“全国优秀儿童文学奖”。同年,出版学术著作《中国八十年代文学现象研究》。1992年,长篇小说《山羊不吃天堂草》获第三届“宋庆龄儿童文学奖”金奖。1998年,长篇小说《草房子》获第九届“冰心文学奖”大奖,次年获第四届“国家图书奖”。1999年长篇小说《红瓦》获第四届“国家图书奖”。同年改编电影《草房子》获第八届“中国电影童牛奖”优秀编剧奖、第十九届“中国电影金鸡奖”最佳剧本奖。2000年,电影《草房子》获得第十四届“德黑兰国际电影节”评审团特别大奖“金蝴蝶奖”。2005年,出版《曹文轩纯美小说系列》(八册)。2010年出版学术著作《第二世界:对文学艺术的哲学解释》。2012—2013年,出版系列长篇小说《丁丁当当》(七册)。此外,还出版长篇小说《红瓦》《根鸟》《天瓢》《大王书》和中短篇小说集《忧郁的田园》《三角地》《野风车》等多种。2016年获“国际安徒生奖”。

  现为北京大学中文系教授、博士生导师,北京市作家协会副主席。

  作品梗概:

  吴贵用羊奶喂磨子,磨子喝着新鲜的羊奶长大了。磨子整天跟着吴贵,吴贵每天都会喝醉,倒下时,磨子照样玩他的。长到四五岁时,磨子再也不满足跟着吴贵。村里有很多大大小小的孩子,他们总是做各种各样稀奇古怪的游戏,磨子很想与他们玩,可是那些孩子总不愿意与他一起玩。磨子好像不是他们村里的孩子,他身上总有一股羊骚味,他们都知道他爸爸是个酒鬼。磨子在这个世界上,好像是多余的。磨子蹲在地上,看着搬家的蚂蚁们,很有趣。没过一会儿,他又站起来,蹦跳着,喊叫着,追孩子们去了……

  一次,村里用船送孩子们去镇上看电影,大家争先恐后地往船上爬。驾船的大人一看船吃水的情况,说:“不能再上人了,上一个都不行。”而那时站在岸上的,就剩一个孩子——磨子。磨子要往船上爬,那大人大声地阻止着:“不行了不行了,只要再爬上来一个,船立马就要沉掉!”磨子只好站在码头上。船以一副很危险的样子,缓缓地走了。磨子一人在岸上跑着。

  磨子上学了,他发现自己没有课桌。老师想让磨子与其中两个孩子挤一挤,但孩子们都不愿意。没办法,老师领着磨子去找林校长。林校长亲自动手,用砖头和水泥给磨子在教室的最后面砌了一张课桌,还对磨子说:“磨子呀,你的这张课桌,比他们的任何一张课桌都结实。”

  夏天,青羊村的孩子们玩游戏,磨子很想参加。可是,孩子们依然没有这个意思。河里的孩子玩得痴迷,没有一个人再记得磨子还在帮他们看衣服。他终于生气了,站起身来走了。吴贵和羊群都不在家。吴贵又喝醉了,磨子在吴贵的身旁坐下,一只小羊羔走到磨子的身旁,并把身子埋在了磨子的怀里。磨子双手抱住羊羔的脖子,眼泪扑簌簌地掉在了羊羔的毛丛里。然后回去提了一桶凉水,“哗啦啦”浇在吴贵的脸上……

  从此,磨子除了默不作声地坐在那张水泥课桌前上课,再也不想和青羊村的孩子们待在一起。他远离他们,并且不想再看到他们。他们的嬉闹再也不能让他的心涌起浪花,他对他们一点儿也不感兴趣,就像石头对风不感兴趣一样。

  现在,他最喜欢去的地方是路边的一个汽车修理厂。老高干活的时候,磨子就在一边看。这个外乡人和他的妻子有点儿喜欢磨子,因为他从不多嘴多事。磨子一有空就往这儿跑,仿佛这儿是他的家。很快,磨子就找到了一种让他特别喜欢的游戏:玩车轮子。这个游戏,只需他一个人,就可以玩得痛快淋漓。他对这个游戏非常着迷,它使他忘记了一切。这个游戏从此也成了青羊村的一道风景。磨子推动着轮子,那时,轮子就成了有生命的东西。磨子说不清楚这是一种什么样的快乐,就是快乐。磨子忘了,那蹦蹦跳跳滚动着的只不过是一只轮子,他竟然把它当成了一辆车——他不是在滚动轮子,而是在开车呢!他不时会从嘴里边发出汽车的喇叭声:“嘀!嘀嘀!……”他越推越熟练,越推花样越多。可以是两只手推,也可以是一只手推,还可以抱着胳膊,用脚一下一下地蹬动那只轮子。他陶醉在与轮子的游戏之中,进入了他在青羊村生活的最快乐的时期。玩着玩着,他要让轮子上路,去各种各样的地方。如果能够周游世界,那就更好了。现在,轮到青羊村的孩子们看他玩耍了。他知道他们在看他,但他装作不知道。他会做出不少奇怪的、惊险的、有趣的,或潇洒的动作。到了修理厂,他会突然发力,只见轮子飞快地向前滚动——最后倒下的地方,正是磨子希望它倒下的地方。紧接着,磨子一个转身,用他的神情告诉孩子们:这是修理厂,可不是你们玩耍的地方!去吧,到别的地方玩去吧!

  他晚上也玩,并且好像更喜欢在夜晚玩,在有月光的夜晚玩。那时,道路隐隐约约,轮子也隐隐约约,很神秘。有时,都已深夜,他还在玩轮子。然后,他顶着一轮明月,迷迷登登地推着轮子,推出村庄,往村子后面的家推去。

  这一天,他居然推着一只巨大的轮子上山了。青羊村的人,一辈子也没看过这样一个情景。轮子的转动非常缓慢,转一圈,仿佛要用几年的时间。但人们还是看到,轮子在不断地滚向山顶,无数的目光在向山顶仰望。突然,磨子走到了轮子的那一边猛一推,只见轮子快速从山头滚向了山坡。随即,磨子也跟着冲了下来。轮子的滚动越来越快,并不时地弹跳到空中。磨子紧紧地追赶着,最后跌倒了。但,他并没有爬起,而是顺势与他的轮子一起往下滚动着……

  三天后,林校长来找老高修车,老高不在。这时,磨子推着一只卡车的轮子,骨碌骨碌一路玩过来了。他看到了那辆面包车歪斜在那里,不知为什么转身跑了。没有过多久,他又回来了,还是推着轮子——另一只轮子。是同一型号的轮子!

  林校长没有立即让磨子推着那只轮子回到修理厂,而是和磨子一起,一边走,一边轻推着那只轮子,往河边去了。没过一会儿,他们和那只轮子,一起消失在了一片林子里。不知过了多久,他们才又一起推着轮子出现在众人面前。

  路上,磨子一直在抽泣。林校长不时地拍一拍磨子的头。来到那辆面包车跟前时,磨子轻车熟路地换好了轮子。林校长对孩子们说:“大家一起说一声:谢谢磨子。”然后对磨子说:“我们还要排一出小戏,也让你演一个角色。”眼泪一下汪满了磨子的眼睛。

  推荐语:

  这是一篇反映乡村少年成长经历的感人佳作。

  一个来历不明的孩子,受到大家的歧视、孤立,为此变得孤独、伤感。偶然从滚汽车轮胎中找到了乐趣,一个人的玩耍渐渐成为村里的一道风景。直至帮助学校解决了修车的燃眉之急——作家就这样写出了被歧视的苦涩,以及在孤独中找到的欢乐、无意中学会的本领。

  原来,孤独也可以产生奇迹。而那奇迹的发生其实纯属偶然。是的,玩也可以玩出名堂的。小说对少年超越歧视与苦闷的描写相当自然、平实,也很有表现力。

  曹文轩的少年儿童文学作品浸透了乡村孩子的苦涩生命体验与艰辛奋斗泪水,散发出朴野而感伤的感人气息,表达着对少年儿童生存状态和心灵世界的关怀,并因此而引人瞩目。这是与当代都市少年儿童文学作品很不一样的文学风景。

   

 

The Fifth Wheel

By Cao Wenxuan

  Author Profile

  Cao Wenxuan was born in January 1954 in the rural area of Yancheng, Jiangsu Province.

  He attended the Chinese Department of Beijing University for his bachelor’s degree in 1974 and later worked there as a faculty member. He started to publish his works in 1979. His short stories A Bow and Yaniu (mute ox) won the Excellent Works Prize of Ertongwenxue and Kids Literature respectively (1982). His short story Farewell, My Little Xingxing won the 1st National Excellent Children’s Literature Prize (1988). In 1988, he published his academic book A Study on China’s Literature Phenomena of the 1980s. His novel The Goats Refuse to Eat the Grass of Heaven won the 3rd Song Qingling Children’s Literature Fund Prize (1992). His novel A Grass House won the 9th Bingxin Literature Prize (1998) and the 4th National Book Award (1999). His novel Red Bricks won the 4th National Book Award (1999). In 1999, the film A Grass House he adapted from his novel won the Excellent Scenarist Prize in China’s 8th Tongniu Film Awards and the Best Screenplay Prize at China’s 19th Golden Rooster Film Awards. In 2000, the film A Grass House was awarded the “Golden Butterfly Award” by the jury in the 14th Tehran International Film Festival. In 2005, A Collection of Cao Wenxuan’s Best Works (8 volumes) was published. In 2010, his academic book the 2nd World: A Philosophical Interpretation of Literary Art was published. From 2012 to 2013, a collection of his novels Dingding and Dangdang (7 volumes) was published. Aside from this, his other works were also published in this period, including the novels Red Bricks, Genniao, A Heaven Ladle, A Book of Lords and collections of novellas and short stories such as Blue Countryside, Sanjiaodi and A Countryside Windmill. In 2016, he received the International Anderson Award.

  He is a professor and advisor to PhD candidates of the Chinese Department of Peking University, as well as the associate chairperson of the China Writers Association.

  Synopsis

  Wu Gui fed Mozi with goat milk and Mozi grew up drinking fresh goat milk. He stayed with Wu Gui all day long. Wu Gui got drunk every day. When he was too drunk to get up, Mozi had fun like he always did. When Mozi was 4 or 5 years old, he was no longer satisfied with staying with Wu Gui. In the village, there were a lot of children of all ages and they always played all kinds of strange games. Mozi wanted to join them very much, but the other kids were unwilling to play with him. It seemed to them that Mozi was not one of them. He always had a goat odor to him. They all knew that his dad was a drunkard. In this world, Mozi seemed to be a fifth wheel. Squatting on the ground, Mozi watched moving ants with great interest. After a while, he rose to his feet, bounced, shouted and ran after the other kids.

  The people of the village once used a boat to send kids to see a film in the town. All of the kids rushed to get into the boat. Having a look at the draft of the ship, the sailor said: “ving a loNot even one!” At that time only one kid was left on the bank — Mozi. Mozi tried to climb into the boat, but the sailor shouted: “tried to climbne more the boat will sink at once!” Mozi had to stay on the bank. Looking dangerous, the boat slowly sailed away, leaving Mozi alone running on the bank.

  Mozi started to go to school, only to find he had no desk. The teacher arranged for him to share the desk with another two kids, but they refused. The teacher had no choice but to take him to the principal, Mr. Lin. Lin made a desk with bricks and cement at the back of the classroom and said to Mozi,ozi,your desk is more durable than all the other desks.”

  The kids of Qingyang Village played games in summer. Mozi wanted to join them very much. But they declined again. They had so much fun in the river that none of them realized Mozi was guarding their clothes. Finally he got mad, stood up and went away. Neither Wu Gui nor the herd of goats was at home. Wu Gui was drunk again. Mozi sat down beside Wu Gui. A lamb came to his side and put its head in his arms. Mozi held its neck in his arms and burst into tears. Then he fetched a bucket of water and poured it over Wu Gui’s face.

  From then on Mozi no longer wanted to join the kids of Qingyang Village, apart from having classes while silently sitting at the cement desk. He stayed far away from them, not wanting to see them. Their fun could no longer stir him. He showed no interest in them, just as a stone was not interested in the wind.

  Now, he loved to go to a roadside auto repair service. While Laogao was working, Mozi watched. Since he behaved himself, this outsider and his wife liked him. Mozi went there whenever he was free, as if it were his home. Soon, he figured out a game he liked very much: playing with a wheel. He could have a lot of fun all by himself. He was so fascinated in it that he forgot everything else. This game became a scene of the village. While he was pushing the wheel, it came alive. He could not name this joy. It was pure joy. He forgot that what he was turning was only a wheel. He took it for a car — he was not rolling a wheel. Instead, he was driving a car! Occasionally, he let out the sound of a car horn: “st!Didi!” As he kept playing, he pushed it more and more skillfully and stylistically. He could push it with either both hands or one hand, as well as kick it with his arms folded. He was so enchanted in the game with the wheel that he started the happiest period of his life during his stay in Qingyang Village. Sometimes, he pushed the wheel onto the road, going everywhere, if only he could push it all over the world. Now it was the turn of Qingyang Village’s kids to watch him having fun. He knew they were watching but he pretended he did not. He would roll it either in a strange, thrilling, interesting or in a stylish way. Getting to the auto shop, he would suddenly push it so that it rolled forward fast — and fell exactly where Mozi wanted it to. Then he turned back and told the kids with the look on his face, ce, the looauto shop, but not a place where you can play. Go, go somewhere else.”

  He also played with the wheel in the evening, a period he preferred, especially at nights with the moon. At that time, both roads and the wheel looked dim and mysterious. Sometimes, late at night he was still playing. Then sleepy-eyed, under the bright moon, he rolled the wheel out of the village towards his home behind the village.

  One day, he pushed a huge wheel up the hill. People of the village had never seen such a scene in their whole life. The wheel turned so slowly that it seemed to take several years to make a full circle. However, people could see that the wheel kept turning towards the top of the hill. Many people were looking up at it. All of a sudden, Mozi went to the wheel’s other side and pushed it with great force. Then the wheel turned fast, rolling from the top of the hill to the bottom. Mozi rushed immediately after it. The wheel turned faster and faster and sometimes bounced to the sky. Mozi followed it closely. At last he fell to the ground, but he did not rise to his feet but rolled downward with his wheel…

  Three days later, Mr. Lin came to ask Laogao to repair his car, but Laogao was out. Just then, Mozi came, pushing and playing with a wheel of a truck, with the sound of the wheel accompanying all the way. At the sight of the van out of balance, he turned back and ran away. In a moment he returned, also pushing a wheel — another one —nother onehe retthat Mr. Lin needed.

  Mr. Lin did not ask Mozi to push that wheel back to the shop, but turned it towards the riverside together with him. Soon, both they and the wheel disappeared into the woods. After quite a while they came out into people’s sight with that wheel.

  On the way back, Mozi kept sobbing. Mr. Lin patted him on his head. When coming to the van, Mozi skillfully replaced the wheel. Lin told all the kids, “ids’s all say thank you to Mozi together.” Then he turned to Mozi,ozi,he turned to have a mini-play and hope you can play a character.” Tears filled Mozi’s eyes at once.

  Reviews

  This is a touching short story reflecting what a rural teenager experienced while he grew up.

  As a child with an unknown origin, he was discriminated against and isolated, which made him lonely and sad. By chance he found pleasure in turning the wheels of automobiles. His having fun alone gradually became a scene of the village until he helped the local school solve an urgent tire replacement problem. In this way, the author presented the bitterness of being discriminated against and the happiness sought from loneliness as well as skills picked up by chance. It turned out that miracles could emerge out of loneliness, which actually happened by chance. Yes, something miraculous can also be achieved from having fun. Its description of how the teenager lived beyond discrimination and depression is natural, simple and expressive.

  Cao Wenxuan’s works of children’s literature fully reflect the bitter life experience and hard struggles of children from rural areas. They are simple, sentimental and touching and therefore draw broad attention. This is quite different from contemporary urban children’s literature.

 

 作者:武汉大学教授 樊星

译者:刘晓梅


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