方方:文学本质上与弱者心息相通

2018-10-11 | 信息来源:CCTSS | 原作者: 罗雨静

  方方,女,本名汪芳,祖籍江西省彭泽县,1955年5月生于江苏南京,成长于湖北武汉。1974年高中毕业后在武汉当过装卸工,1978年考入武汉大学中文系,曾任《今日名流》杂志社长兼主编,《长江文艺》杂志社长兼主编。现任湖北省作家协会主席、中国作协全委会委员,一级作家。著有《乌泥湖年谱》,《水在时间之下》《武昌城》等长篇小说,随笔集《到庐山看老别墅》《汉口的沧桑往事》,中短篇小说集《风景》《奔跑的火光》《有爱无爱都铭心刻骨》及《方方文集》(五卷)《方方中篇小说集》(七卷)等。现已出版小说、散文集约100余部,多部小说被译为法、日、意、葡、韩、泰、英、西班牙等文字在国外出版。

  方方的短篇小说《风景》的发表被批评界认为“拉开‘新写实主义’序幕”,方方因此成为中国“新写实”派代表作家之一。《风景》叙写了城市流民杂住区的一对夫妇,从解放前开始的种种沉浮际遇。他们栖息在汉口市江边自己搭起来的一间只有13平米的“河南棚子”里,生下了七男二女。方方以一个亡灵视角展开叙述,使得文本具有一种陌生化的叙述效果。小说还原了赤裸裸的生存本相,由于这还原摈弃了以往意识形态的遮蔽,使得整个叙写充满了令人惊愕的新异和逼真感觉。

  长篇小说《乌泥湖年谱》用编年的方式记叙了50年代中期到60年代初中国知识分子坎坷的悲剧命运,语言朴实自然,只有琐碎的日常生活,但就是这些琐碎的日常生活,却消磨了一代中国知识分子的心智和才情,但这种消磨于无声的悲剧较之那些痛苦哀号的有声悲剧更为震撼人心。

  中篇小说《万箭穿心》被改编成电影,在全国公映后反响热烈,小说讲述了武汉女人李宝莉悲剧的一生。李宝莉年轻时漂亮能干,但性格过于得理不饶人。嘴上的厉害让丈夫马学武每天都活在压抑之中。为了排解生活的苦闷,马学武与打字员成了秘密情人。李宝莉发现这个秘密后,打电话报警,马学武和打字员在旅馆被抓。丈夫得知事情的真相后跳江自尽。儿子小宝不能原谅母亲对父亲的伤害。大学毕业后毅然与母亲断绝关系。为了小宝的成长,李宝莉忍辱负重做“扁担”。方方在此文中完成了探讨女性命运由寻求外围突破到实现自身突围的飞跃。

  华语文学传媒大奖曾在2011年授于方方年度杰出作家奖。授奖词曰:方方的小说,正大,绵实,元气充沛,叙事悠长而强悍,语言细腻而练达,写俗世而有情,用浅语亦有致,格局宽阔,气象磅礴。她常以柴米油盐的庸常,暗喻激情过后的空洞与生命的弱,见证人的复杂、悲壮、不可摧毁。

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  方方

  Fang Fang

  The author Fang Fang, born Wang Fang, was born in May, 1955, in Jiangsu province’s capital Nanjing, though her family has its ancestral roots in Jiangxi province’s Pengze County. Fang Fang was brought up in Wuhan, Hubei province, where she worked as a docker after graduating from high school in 1974. In 1978 she was admitted to Wuhan University’s Chinese department, and served as both president and editor-in-chief of two magazines: “Contemporary Celebrities” and “Changjiang Literature and Art”. She is currently the chairwoman of the Hubei Writers Association, a member of the committee of the China Writers Association, and a nationally accredited “Grade 1” author. Her novels include Chronicle of Black Mud Lake, Water Under Time and Wuchang City. She has also published collections of written sketches like Seeing the Old Mansion on Mount Lu andThe Tumultuous Past of Hankou, novellas like Scenery, The Running Flames, and Love and its Lack are Emblazoned on the Heart Forever, and other collections including The Collected Works of Fang Fang (five volumes) and The Collected Novellas of Fang Fang(seven volumes). Novels and essays together, Fang Fang has to this day published over 100 works, many of which have been translated into languages like French, Japanese, Italian, Portuguese, Korean, Thai, English, and Spanish, and published abroad.

  The publication of Fang Fang’s novella The Scenery was lauded by critics as having “opened up a new chapter for ‘new realism’”, propelling her to the status of one of the genre’s most representative authors. The Scenery tells the story of a husband and wife who live in an urban area populated by travelers, and the dramatic vicissitudes and opportunities that have shaped their lives since before the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949. They live crammed away in what Fang Fang describes as a “Henan shed”, a 13-square-meter hut they built themselves on the banks of a river in the city of Hankou. There, they start their family of seven sons and two daughters. Fang Fang tells the story from the perspective of the soul of a dead person, adding a distinctly unfamiliar narrative effect to the writing. The book lays bare the true nature of survival, at once doing away with the ideologies that have historically hidden it from view and instilling the narrative with an astounding sense of both freshness and realism.

  The novel Chronicle of Black Mud Lake uses a chronological structure to recount the tumultuous, tragic fates that befell China’s intelligentsia between the mid-1950s and early ’60s. The language is honest and natural, describing only the trivial matters of daily life. Yet it is was the trivial matters of daily life that sapped the minds and talents of the country’s intelligentsia. The silent tragedy of this sapping was even more shocking than the loud tragedies with their soundtracks of painful wails. The novella A Heart Pierced By 10,000 Arrows, the movie adaption of which was met with critical acclaim upon screening across the country, tells the tragic tale of a Wuhan woman Li Baoli. As a young woman, Li is beautiful and capable, yet has an unforgiving streak in her temperament. Victim to her acerbic tongue, Li’s husband Ma Xuewu lives each and everyday in a state of oppression, and ends up seeking to relieve his depression by starting a love affair with a typist. Upon finding out their secret, Li reports the couple to the police, who then capture the couple while they are staying in a hotel. When he finds out that it was his wife who reported him, Ma jumps into a river and ends his life. Their son, Xiao Bao, cannot forgive his mother for the suffering she caused his father, and cuts all contact with her upon graduating from university. For the sake of his upbringing, Li had stomached humiliation and found work shouldering a pole to carry wares. In this story, Fang Fang achieves an exploration of the flight in the fates of women from seeking to break through the barriers around them to successfully breaking through the barriers within them.

  In 2011, Fang Fang was awarded the outstanding author prize at the “Chinese Literature Media Awards”. In the words of the prize-givers: “Fang Fang’s novels are honest, real, epic in their narratives, and full of vigor and valor. Her language is both delicate and honed, speaking with real emotion of the ordinary world around us. She communicates profound concepts with such simple expressions, and is able to create the most expansive of narrative structures and most awe-inspiring of ambiences. Using the quotidian demands of day-to-day life, and utilizing the emptiness that comes after the death of passion as a metaphor for the fragility of life, she is a witness to the complexity, tragedy, and tenacity of the human spirit.”


责任编辑:霍娟

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