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关于译制——南非教授参加“中外影视译制合作高级研修班”有感

发布者:王富丽    发布时间:2017-11-21 09:52:04    查看数:1

  “市场化”“外化”“翻译”,这是我在2015年至2017年间三次长时间访华期间学到的术语。“市场化”是中国企业从“中国制造”到“中国创造”的转变,是其从带有贬义的顽固的前现代性转换为消费主义的后现代性的象征。“外化”是指将中国的文化译出并输出国外。“翻译”是指如何最大程度地实现中国与世界之间的跨文化交流,推动中国文化“走出去”,在全球范围内展现中国的“软实力”。

  当南非还在闭关自守想摆脱外语项目时,中国正在大力发展“外国语”大学及英语课程建设。商务交际、商务语言学和话语分析被人们普遍应用,以试图搞清楚“市场”这一神秘的虚拟关系。广告与品牌化研究是大型的话语分析业务,包括研究中国在不断崛起的过程中如何打造自己的品牌。

  最近我通过受邀参加一些活动,对中国的觉醒和发展有了更深入的了解。今年六月,我作为嘉宾参加了中华人民共和国文化部和国家新闻出版广电总局主办的“中外影视译制合作高级研修班”上海活动。此活动在上海国际电影节期间举办,影视市场更是一个大型的动画和视觉效果盛宴,各种前沿技术和上千部故事长片在这里制作、投放和销售,使人眼花缭乱。

  近年来,中国电影业正在蓬勃发展。译者、译制人员、导演及制片人在中共中央领导下实施“工作计划”,以在全球范围内推进中国电影。在校学生和专业学者积极学习影视翻译,如中国传媒大学就开设了影视翻译理论及历史、字幕及配音、字幕组、数字化时代的翻译等课程,这些课程将学生培养为译制人员、译者和理论家,并创造了数以千计的工作机会。19世纪初,好莱坞电影兴起,南非Hollyveld电影衰落,面对这样的“市场”变迁,中国电影没有听天由命。上海国际电影节为专业学者和从业人员,研究与公关,旅游业和开发都提供了一个不寻常的平台。

  参加2017年“中外影视译制合作高级研修班”的经历使我想起了2015年在香港举办的一个跨文化研讨会,一些优秀的学生在电影翻译的演讲中,分享了有趣的“误译”故事。来自加州艺术学院的代表Bẻrẻnice Reynaud将其称之为“辅助‘异延’”(“异延”一词由法国解构主义哲学家雅克·德里达所创)。两次活动让我们看到中国在学术和政策上的许多创新。

  2016年,我在中国社会科学院短暂停留的时候,与一些学者交流探讨,通过对中西方哲学的研讨,甚至追溯到了17世纪的黑格尔时期,讨论了中国在世界上的位置。他们认为,为了了解“西方”,就需要了解西方哲学,西方人是如何“言之有理”的。从文化角度来看,中国在研究世界上不同国家的身份是如何形成、融合和交流的。每一场会议所讨论的问题都是:如何和平地“走出去”,如何与美国对话,并在承认文化差异存在价值的基础上保留中华民族的身份特征,通过对“差异”原则的积极辩证讨论了国际定位。

  中国社会科学院人员在英国文化研究中找到了一种国际协商的方法。在20世纪60年代,英国文化研究的创始人之一——Stuart Hall,吸收了德里达的语言学概念,提出了身份生成理论。身份存在于文化“差异”之中,但一般被视为固定不变的,就像我们常说“在我的文化中,我们......”,并不认为文化具有动态性、适应性、变化性和交融性。通过这种动态关系,中国在21世纪试图协调全球关系。这一话语策略是以未来而非过去为导向的。

  此次研修班还让我想起了20世纪70年代中期我在约翰尼斯堡经营的一家译制和音效工作室。我为Ross Devenish和Athol Fugard合作拍摄的电影《贵宾》处理音轨,为电视剧制作音效。我知道南非广播公司签约的配音导演要审查什么,我也知道实际上当时我们对译制知之甚少。而现在,我们知道中国传媒大学还有影视译制的博士学位。

  本次“中外影视译制合作高级研修班”以“影视互译,文化共享”为主题,谈论了在互相欣赏和跨文化理解的环境下的“互译”。2017年5月末,“一带一路”登上了国际头条。南非作为金砖国家之一参与到“一带一路”战略中来,我们希望通过此举,让自己的国家在金融这条路上步入正轨。

  中国在推行“走出去”战略,我们可以从中学习很多。

  (本文发表于夸祖鲁·纳塔尔大学校报UKZNndaba,http://ndabaonline.ukzn.ac.za/)

 

  原文:

The UKZN Griot. Of Dubbing and Translation

  Marketization,Foreignization,Translation.These are terms I have learned during three lengthy visits to China, 2015-2017. Marketization refers to translating Chinese enterprises from the pejorative ‘faked in China’, an indication of resistant pre-modernity, to ‘created in China’, an indication of consumerist post-modernity. Foreignization refers to translating Chinese culture abroad. And, translation means basically how to enable intercultural communication between China and the world at large.The practice of translation involves ‘soft power’ as China engages globally, or ‘Going Abroad’, as its linguists phrase it.

  Where South Africa seems to be shedding its foreign language programmes, and turning in on itself, China is investing massively in English language courses and in ‘Foreign Studies’ universities, of which there are many. Business communication, business linguistics and discourse analysis are applied to anything and everything in trying to make sense of that mysterious set of virtual relationships known as ‘the market’. The study of advertising and branding is big discourse analysis business, and includes study of how China is branding itself as it emerges out of its slumber.

  I have recently found myself as the guest of many conferences and organisations resulting from China’s emergence. I was the guest of the Ministry of Culture in June, under whose auspices occurred the 2017 Sino-Foreign Audiovisual Translation & Dubbing Cooperation Workshop, held in Shanghai. The Shanghai Film and TV Market, associated with the Shanghai International Film Festival is an overwhelming smorgasboard of animation and visual effects, new technologies and thousands of full length features being pitched, made, and sold.It was quite dizzying.

  The Chinese cinema dragon is in the rise. Translators, dubbing technicians and directors and producers are all working with the CPC central committee to implement a “Work Plan” to promote Chinese cinema across the globe. Students and academics are actively studying translation in film and TV, e.g., as is offered at the Communication University of China (CUC): theory and history of film translation, sub-titling and dubbing, fansubbing, and translation in the digital age. Students are being trained as dubbing technicians, translators and theorists. Thousands of jobs have been created.Chinese film is not being left to chance or the vicissitudes of ‘the market’ as was experienced during the rise of Hollywood in the early 19th Century which coincided with the demise of South Africa’s Hollyveld as a momentary competitor.The Festival offered an unusual lattice of both academics and professionals, analysis and PR, tourism and development.

  My experience at the Festival reminded me of some excellent student presentations offered on film translation at a 2015 intercultural studies held in Hong Kong, and some of the hilarious mistranslations that result. “Fruitful mishaps” was how one delegate, Bẻrẻnice Reynaud, from the California Institute of the Arts, put them. These, she suggested, “aid ‘differance’” (as used by French language deconstructionist Jacques Derrida). And, thereby holds an extraordinary tale of Chinese academic and policy ingenuity.

  During my 2016 sojourn at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS) I interacted with scholars all debating China’s place in the world – through the study of both Chinese and Western philosophies, going back to Hegel – a 17th Century scholar. To understand ‘the West’ they argued that they needed to understand Western philosophy and how people in the West ‘make sense’. From a Cultural China standpoint, they were studying how identities form, hybridize and interact. At every conference the question was, how to ‘go global’ peacefully, and how to negotiate with America thus, and how to retain a national Chinese identity while acknowledging the existence and value of intercultural difference. There was no talk, as there is in South Africa, of ‘de-colonizing’ anything, but of international positioning via the pro-active dialectical principle of ‘difference’.

  The CASS folks found in British Cultural Studies a means to international negotiation. Stuart Hall, one of the founding fathers of British Cultural Studies had in the 1960s developed his seminal theory of identity as a moving target by drawing on Derrida’s linguistic concept. Identity exists in ‘difference’ between cultures, but is popularly taken as fixed and immutable, as in expressions like “In my culture, we …” versus its dynamic imperative which admits change and adaptation, mobility and hybridity. It is the latter relational forms through which China is looking to negotiate its global relations in the post-millennium world. This is a future-oriented, not a past-oriented, discursive strategy.

  The Shanghai Audiovisual Translation and Dubbing Festival reminded me of my mid-1970s film career when I co-owned and worked in a 16mm dubbing and sound effects studio in Johannesburg. I’d cleaned up the sound track on a Ross Devenish/Athol Fugard film, The Guest, and performed, recorded and edited sound effects on TV dramas. I knew what was being censored by the dubbing directors contracted to the South African Broadcasting Corporation and I knew how little we actually knew about dubbing and translation. Now, we know there is now a PhD in the subject at CUC.

  The Festival programme talked about “mutual translation” in the context of mutual appreciation and intercultural understanding. The week that I departed for China at the end of May 2017 was when the Belt and Road” initiative had grabbed the international headlines. As part of BRICS, South Africa could be part of this phenomenon. Let’s just hope that we can keep our own country on the financial rails as in contrast to a corruption-busting China as South Africa is dragged into new kind of familist colonialism that has nothing to do with mutual cooperation, going abroad or internationalisation at any level.

  China has a ‘coming out’ strategy. We can all learn from this.

  (“The UKZN Griot” is published in UKZNndaba, the University’s newspaper http://ndabaonline.ukzn.ac.za/ This article is reproduced in Chinese with permission.)

 

  作者介绍:

  Keyan Tomaselli,南非夸祖鲁·纳塔尔大学(University of KwaZulu-Natal)名誉教授,南非约翰内斯堡大学杰出教授。南非传播协会(SACOMM)终身研究员,国际权威期刊《艺术批评》主编。南非文化传播、媒体、社会等人文学科方面研究权威专家,有长达40多年的研究历史,希望能为中国和南非之间的影视文化传播起到桥梁的作用。

  Keyan Tomaselli is Professor Emeritus at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN), and Distinguished Professor at the University of Johannesburg, both in South Africa.

 

  作者 | Keyan G Tomaselli

  翻译 | 刘婷婷 咸慧

  中文编辑 | 王富丽

  指导 | 金海娜

  声明:文章仅代表作者观点,不代表中国文化译研网立场。作者已授权中国文化译研网公众号发表,未经许可,不得转载。

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